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A full 100 years after Nelson Mandela’s July 18, 1918, birth, he is remembered around the world as a symbol of peace and freedom, for ushering South Africa into a … In November, his family said he remained "quite ill", but his pneumonia had cleared up. Nelson Mandela, deputy president and later president of the African National Congress—and president of South Africa—addressing the Special Committee Against Apartheid, convened in his honour at the UN General Assembly, on June 22, 1990, in New York City. A daughter and two sons passed away: Makaziwe died as an infant in 1948; Madiba Thembekile [Thembi] died in a car accident in 1969 and Makgatho Lewanika died of an … Mandela did not seek a second term as South African president and was succeeded by Mbeki in 1999. This article was most recently revised and updated by, Underground activity and the Rivonia Trial, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nelson-Mandela, South African History Online - Biography of Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, The Nobel Prize - Biography of Nelson Mandela, Nelson Mandela - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Nelson Mandela - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Even as a youth, Mandela showed signs of leadership. Winnie Madikizela-Mandela). After returning home partway through university, Mandela fled to Johannesburg to avoid an arranged marriage. President Jacob Zuma made the announcement from the Union Buildings in Pretoria on Thursday night. Nelson Mandela's father died when he was nine years old. …leadership of the long-imprisoned dissident. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, the father of the nation, died on December 5 2013 at the age of 95. After his father’s death, young Nelson was raised by Jongintaba, the regent of the Tembu. Court affidavits soon confirmed that the former statesman was on an assisted-breathing, life support machine. 1990), and In His Own Words (2003). Although Nelson had a claim to the chieftainship, he renounced it in order to become a lawyer. Over his long life, he changed a nation and helped people all around the world understand that everyone should be treated the same. Nelson Mandela's father died in 1930 when Mandela was 12 and his mother died in 1968 when he was in prison. ed. Nelson Mandela's exact age was 95 years 4 months 17 days old. After suffering a prolonged respiratory infection, Nelson Mandela died on 5 December 2013 at the age of 95 in his home in Houghton, Johannesburg, the Republic of South Africa, surrounded by his family, in particular, his eldest daughter Makaziwe Mandela. Nelson Mandela lived for total 34,839 days. Mandela's primary school was a local missionary school where he became known as Nelson. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. He was 47 years old. The Day Nelson Mandela Walked Out Of Prison : Parallels When the anti-apartheid leader emerged from 27 years of confinement, South Africans knew … Key facts. Mandela resigned his post with the ANC in December 1997, transferring leadership of the party to his designated successor, Thabo Mbeki. His father died in 1930 when Mr Mandela was 12 and his mother died in 1968 when he was in prison. Material may not be published or reproduced in any form without prior written permission. Zuma called on South Africans to "recall the values for which Madiba fought". Nelson Mandela died on 5 December 2013at the age of 95 years. To fully understand Nelson Mandela and the impact he had on the world, you first need to understand a little bit about the geographical and political environment that he was born into. Nelson Mandela was 95 when he died on December 5, 2013. Despite assurances from the presidency that he was in a "serious but stable" condition, South Africans began preparing themselves for the worst as Mandela's family members flocked to Johannesburg, struggle stalwarts paid visits to the icon, and the world's media gathered in Qunu, Houghton and at the Pretoria hospital where he was treated. In local dialect, Rolihlahla roughly translates as 'troublemaker'. Nelson Mandela served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. But activists will not stop the fight, Children in the Cape Flats see violence very early in their lives and many end up in jail or killed. His father, the chief of the Madiba clan of the Xhosa-speaking Tembu people, died when Nelson was still young, and he was raised by Jongintaba, the regent of the Tembu. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African politician and activist. Mandela, before he died… While the autobiography Long Walk to Freedom places Madiba’s father’s death in 1927, historical evidence shows it must have been later, most likely 1930. His father gave him the name Rolihlahla, which means … Mandela's last public appearance was a brief one, at the end of the Soccer World Cup in 2010. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Kofi Atta Annan (/ ˈ k oʊ f i ˈ æ n æ n /; 8 April 1938 – 18 August 2018) was a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006. When did Nelson Mandela’s parents die? Mandela is also known for being the first black president of South Africa, serving from 1994 to 1999. But on June 23, the Presidency announced that. Visit the “Major Memories” page to see many other surprising topics. Nelson Mandela’s 20th-century death is just one unusual memory among thousands. Joining the ANC, he was increasingly influenced by Sisulu, spending time with other activists at Sisulu's Orlandohouse, including … Mandela began studying law at the University of the Witwatersrand, where he was the only black African student and faced racism. His declining health has been the subject of speculation over the past few years. In 2009, the United Nations General Assembly designated July 18, Mandela's birthday, as Nelson Mandela International Day. Mandela became the symbol of the struggle against apartheid after he was convicted in the Rivonia Trial of charges of sabotage and was sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben Island. South Africa's first black president and anti-apartheid icon Nelson Mandela has died at the age of 95. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, also known as Madiba, was born Rolihlahla Mandela on July 18, 1918, in Mvezo, South Africa; the name Nelson was later added by one of his teachers. On 5 December 2013, Nelson Mandela, the first President of South Africa to be elected in a fully representative democratic election, as well as the country's first black head of state, died at the age of 95 after suffering from a prolonged respiratory infection. More reports emerged about Mandela in the days that followed — that he was in a "permanent vegetative state" — although the presidency denied these, maintaining that he was "critical yet stable". In fact, the original Long Walk to Freedom manuscript (written on Robben Island) states the year as 1930, when he was 12. How is Nelson Mandela remembered? After suffering a lung infection in January 2011, Mandela was … Nelson Mandela was born Rolihlahla Mandela, on July 18, 1918, to Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa and Nosekeni Fanny. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. ed. What were the names of Nelson Mandela’s parents? One of them, now a reformed gangster, walks us through his early traumatic experiences, Most of the coronavirus deaths were in Peru, Brazil, India, Mexico, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Italy and the United States, The new year started with a crucial step towards free trade between countries on the continent, Despite fighting so hard for it, South Africans don’t seem to understand how democracy works, Mandela was hospitalised on June 8 with a recurring lung infection. Nelson graduated 2 universities and started … ed. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African politician and activist. While he was in prison, a “Free Nelson Mandela” campaign fueled the outcry against the regime. Initial reports from the Presidency suggested, was stable, although his condition was serious. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.". His negotiations in the early 1990s with South African Pres. When his father died, the nine-year-old Mandela … 2002); The Struggle Is My Life (1978; rev. While the autobiography Long … On April 27, 1994, he was made the first President of South Africa elected in a fully represented democratic election.Mandela was also the first black President of his country, South Africa.. Mandela was born in Mvezo, South Africa to a Thembu royal family. Even at the time, it overshadowed the triumph of the great victory. He traveled throughout the country as part of the campaign, trying to build support for nonviolent means of protest against the discriminatory laws. He spent 18 days in hospital at the end of 2012 and, despite receiving home-based high care thereafter, was back in hospital in March and April 2013. He was 95 years old. 1986), No Easy Walk to Freedom (1965; updated ed. Mandela, who passed away in 2013, was an anti-Apartheid revolutionary and served as the country's first black head of state from 1994 to 1999. He won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1993, along with South Africa’s president at the time, F.W. He was a polygamist with four wives and thirteen children, including four boys and nine girls. Dare Not Linger: The Presidential Years Nelson Mandela's father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, was 48 years old when he died. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. In 1996 he oversaw the enactment of a new democratic constitution. , in full Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, byname Madiba, (born July 18, 1918, Mvezo, South Africa—died December 5, 2013, Johannesburg), Black nationalist and the first Black president of South Africa (1994–99). Nelson Mandela’s spirit and values are still very much alive to this day, and he will forever be remembered. PHOTO: Theana Calitz-Bilt/pool/ap Nelson Mandela’s writings included I Am Prepared to Die (1964; rev. Mandela was born in 1918 in Mvezo in South Africa and pursued a career in law as a young man. Throughout his incarceration, Mandela retained wide support among South Africa’s Black population, and his imprisonment became a cause célèbre among the international community that condemned apartheid. In October 1963 the imprisoned Mandela and several other men were tried for sabotage, treason, and violent conspiracy in the infamous Rivonia Trial, named after a fashionable suburb of Johannesburg where raiding police had discovered quantities of arms and equipment at the headquarters of the underground Umkhonto we Sizwe. Nelson Mandela is known for several things, but perhaps he is best known for successfully leading the resistance to South Africa’s policy of apartheid in the 20th century, during which he was infamously incarcerated at Robben Island Prison (1964–82). Nelson Mandela net worth: Nelson Mandela was a South African politician who had a net worth of $10 million. Fewer images in history are more powerful than … It was first observed on July 18, 2009, and was sponsored primarily by the Nelson Mandela Foundation and the 46664 initiative (the foundation’s HIV/AIDS global awareness and prevention campaign); later that year the United Nations declared that the day would be observed annually as Nelson Mandela International Day. Starting in 2002, Mandela encouraged AIDS awareness and treatment, despite the stigma surrounding the disease. He established in 1995 the While the autobiography Long Walk to Freedom says his father died when he was nine, historical evidence shows it must have been later, most likely 1930. Nelson Mandela, the global statesman who delivered South Africa from the dark days of apartheid, has died aged 95. Since then, he has split his time between his home in Houghton and his ancestral home in Qunu in the Eastern Cape. As Biography tells us, the future leader was only 9-years-old when his father, who was suffering from a lung disease, died. Ordinary seamen broke down crying when the news spread through the fleet and when the news reached Britain, the nation went into mourning. In 2011, he was admitted to hospital following a severe respiratory infection and a year later underwent a scheduled surgery for a longstanding abdominal complaint. While the autobiography Long Walk to Freedom says his father died when he was nine, historical evidence shows it must have been later, most likely 1930. Mandela refused both offers, the second on the premise that only free men were able to engage in such negotiations and, as a prisoner, he was not a free man. (2017). Zuma visited Mandela on November 18 and said he was still in a critical condition, but that he continued to respond to treatment. 1. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. Shortly after his release, Mandela was chosen deputy president of the ANC; he became president of the party in July 1991. Updates? Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), which investigated human rights violations under apartheid, and he introduced housing, education, and economic development initiatives designed to improve the living standards of the country’s Black population. Robert Crowder said he learnt of Mandela… It is an ideal, which I hope to live for and to achieve. function loadDoc() {var xhttp = new XMLHttpRequest(); xhttp.onreadystatechange = function() { if (this.readyState == 4 && this.status == 200) { document.getElementById("pressoffice").innerHTML = this.responseText; }}; xhttp.open("GET", "https://mg.co.za/scripts/rss/pressofficeServer.php?menu=false&items=5&feed=http://pressoffice.mg.co.za/feed/rss2.php", true); xhttp.send();} loadDoc(); For all the latest information and advice from the Department of Health relating to Covid-19, please visit sacoronavirus.co.za. On his 95th birthday, July 18, Zuma announced an improvement in Mandela's health. But on June 23, the Presidency announced that Mandela's condition had deteriorated and he was critical. Nelson Mandela's childhood troubles didn't end with his family's sudden impoverishment. condition had deteriorated and he was critical. This is the first of several polls I’m using to find patterns in alternate memories. The autobiography Long Walk to Freedom, which chronicles his early life and years in prison, was published in 1994. The much-loved Mandela, known affectionately as Tata Madiba, became increasingly frail and retired from public life in 2004 at the age of 85. Nelson Mandela died on December 5, 2013, in Johannesburg. Mandela's last surviving son, Makgatho, died in a Johannesburg hospital at 54. Mandela and Madikizela-Mandela had divorced in 1996, and in 1998 Mandela married Mandela was plagued by recurring lung ailments in recent years. Within hours, Mandela had publicly announced that his son's death was from Aids-related complications. Born in the rural village of Qunu, Mandela spent his early days tilling fields and herding cattle, and his nights listening to tribal elders talk of the time before the white man came to that part of South Africa. Nelson Mandela, former South African president and an icon of the anti-apartheid movement, has died at age 92. He was sentenced to life on June 12, 1964 and released on February 11, 1990. Mandela led the ANC in negotiations with de Klerk to end apartheid and bring about a peaceful transition to nonracial democracy in South Africa. Nelson Mandela was the son of Chief Henry Mandela of the Madiba clan of the Xhosa-speaking Tembu people. After leaving office Mandela retired from active politics but maintained a strong international presence as an advocate of peace, reconciliation, and social justice, often through the work of the Nelson Mandela Foundation, established in 1999. He was a founding member of the Elders, a group of international leaders established in 2007 for the promotion of conflict resolution and problem solving throughout the world. Initial reports from the Presidency suggested Mandela was stable, although his condition was serious. On December 3, his daughter, Makaziwe Mandela, said the former president was "strong" and "courageous", although he was "on his death bed". After the massacre of unarmed Black South Africans by police forces at Sharpeville in 1960 and the subsequent banning of the ANC, Mandela abandoned his nonviolent stance and began advocating acts of sabotage against the South African regime. An event for an official memorial service was held at the FNB Stadium in Johannesburg on Tuesday 10 December. How old was Nelson Mandela? Oliver Tambo, Mandela established South Africa’s first Black law practice, specializing in cases resulting from the post-1948 apartheid legislation. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Nelson’s death became the central event of the Battle of Trafalgar. He was 95. In 2009, the United Nations General Assembly designated July 18, His father was Nkosi (Chief) Mphakanyiswa Mandela and his mother was Nosekeni Mandela. His death was announced by President Jacob Zuma.On 6 December, Zuma announced a national mourning for ten days. He brokered negotiations for peace in Rwanda, established the Mandela-Rhodes Foundation for educational scholarship, and launched the 46664 Aids fundraising foundation. There, he befriended liberal and communist European, Jewish, and Indian students, among them Joe Slovo and Ruth First. Nelson Mandela's father died in 1930 when Mandela was 12 and his mother died in 1968 when he was in prison. What was Nelson Mandela's childhood like? On her site she also shares stories of more than 500 people who too thought Mandela died long before his actual death. Starting in 1952, he was intermittently banned (severely restricted in travel, association, and speech). Mandela Day, observed on Mandela’s birthday, was created to honour his legacy by promoting community service around the world. 2020 was a challenging year for everybody, with no growth forecast in the economy, fears of a deep recession and a jobs bloodbath. In 1952 in Johannesburg, with fellow ANC leader I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. (born July 18, 1918). Nelson died at 4.30pm on 21 October 1805. 2002), The Struggle Is My Life (1978; rev. In 1955 he was involved in drafting the Freedom Charter, a document calling for nonracial social democracy in South Africa. 1986); No Easy Walk to Freedom (1965; updated ed. Nelson Mandela was the leader of the South African nation, one of the most prominent fighters for Black people's rights and one of the most successful national leaders in the whole world's history. Nelson Mandela died at his Johannesburg home on December 5, 2013 at the age of 95. The day I heard that Nelson Mandela died on the news I was next to my parents and I was like “…but he died a long time ago” they told me no he just died and I said “He died in prison a long time ago” and they said that I had my thoughts crossed with someone else but because I saw it on the news I kept trying to think who was I confusing him with. Mandela was discharged from hospital in September and transported to his home in Houghton. Mandela, who passed away in 2013, was an anti-Apartheid revolutionary and served as the country's first black head of state from 1994 to 1999. Ms Madikizela-Mandela married Nelson Mandela in 1958, four years before he was imprisoned for his fight against apartheid in 1962, and they had two children together. Nelson Mandela had three wives: Evelyn Ntoko Mase (1944–58); Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (1958–96), who was also a noteworthy anti-apartheid champion; and Graça Machel (1998–2013), who was the widow of Samora Machel, former president of Mozambique (1975–86), and was Mandela’s wife at the time of his death in 2013. The Mail & Guardian is a proud news publisher with roots stretching back 35 years, and we’ve survived right from day one thanks to the support of readers who value fiercely independent journalism that is beholden to no-one. In December 1956 he was arrested with more than 100 other people on charges of treason that were designed to harass antiapartheid activists. According to NDTV , the next child-related tragedy came in 1969, when Mandela's eldest son Madiba Thembekile died in a car accident while the man himself was a few years into his lengthy prison stint. Long illness Mandela was hospitalised on June 8 with a recurring lung infection. African National Congress (ANC), a Black-liberation group, and became a leader of its Youth League. Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993, together with former president FW De Klerk, for the "peaceful termination of the apartheid regime and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa". Also that year, Mandela played an important role in launching a campaign of defiance against South Africa’s pass laws, which required nonwhites to carry documents (known as passes, pass books, or reference books) authorizing their presence in areas that the government deemed “restricted” (i.e., generally reserved for the white population). Annan and the UN were the co-recipients of the 2001 Nobel Peace Prize. As Los Angeles Times reports, Mandela's first child-related tragedy came as early as 1948, when his 9-month-old daughter Makaziwe perished while he helplessly watched. de Klerk, for having led the transition from apartheid to a multiracial democracy. Mandela died on 5 December 2013 at his home at Houghton Estate, Johannesburg from complications of a respiratory tract infection, aged 95. Omissions? Zuma said Mandela would have a state funeral and that flags would fly half-mast from December 6 until after the funeral. Two Names: Rolihlahla and Nelson . This prompted another radical change in young Mandela's life, when his father's friend, Chief Jongintaba Dalindyebo, took the boy in. Numerous memorial services were held, including one by the South African government on December 10. Please vote just once, and for just one year. Mandela was jailed initially on Robben Island, a former leper colony, for 18 years. Mandela’s antiapartheid activism made him a frequent target of the authorities. An unfinished draft of his second volume of memoirs was completed by Mandla Langa and released posthumously as He was laid to rest at Qunu, in South Africa’s Eastern Cape province, on December 15. On April 27, 1994, he was made the first President of South Africa elected in a fully represented democratic election.Mandela was also the first black President of his country, South Africa.. Mandela was born in Mvezo, South Africa to a Thembu royal family. Nelson Mandela was 95 years old when he died. 1990); In His Own Words (2003); and Long Walk to Freedom (1994), which chronicles his early life and years in prison. A year later, he was elected president in the country's first democratic election. During the extended court proceedings, he divorced his first wife and married Nomzamo Winifred Madikizela ( Nelson Mandela, the prisoner-turned-president who reconciled South Africa after the end of apartheid, died on December 5, 2013. In 1962 he went to Algeria for training in guerrilla warfare and sabotage, returning to South Africa later that year. apartheid system of racial segregation and ushered in a peaceful transition to majority rule. On June 12, 1964, he was sentenced to life imprisonment, narrowly escaping the death penalty. please consider taking out a subscription, Q&A Sessions: ‘I’ll never vote ANC again’ — Ndileka Mandela, Review: Sam Msibi’s perilous dance on the frontlines, South Africa must revisit and refresh its idea of itself, Dance with the ‘devil’: Why SA has fought off the IMF for so long, Creecy okays drilling off KwaZulu-Natal coast, Call for media workers to get Covid vaccine, Africa trade bloc bets on business without borders, Democracy does not mean keep voting for the ANC. On August 5, shortly after his return, Mandela was arrested at a road block in Natal; he was subsequently sentenced to five years in prison. — Nelson Mandela died in prison, long before his loss on December 5th, 2013. Umkhonto we Sizwe (“Spear of the Nation”), the military wing of the ANC. Mandela's grandson, Ndaba Mandela, said his grandfather was "not doing well", although, "he is still with us". While Evelyn raised their three surviving children at home — one died as a baby — Mandela increasingly spent his evenings out. Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1993 for their efforts. Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the, Nelson Mandela was the son of Chief Henry Mandela of the Madiba. Becoming increasingly politicised, in August 1943 Mandela marched in support of a successful bus boycott to reverse fare rises. After his death was announced, his life was remembered and celebrated in South Africa as well as around the world. There were renewed fears for his health when he returned to hospital in June. Mandela, a key figure in the African National Congress, who helped found the party's youth league and armed wing, Umkhonto weSizwe, was imprisoned for 27 years before he was finally released in 1990 at the age of 71. Mandela was only 44 years old when he was given a life sentence by the apartheid regime for his leadership of the African National Congress, an organization outlawed by the government for its anti-apartheid actions and positions. This man that changed the world grew up in a tiny village and was the first member of his family to … He is survived by his third wife, Graáa Machel, whom he married in 1998 on his 80th birthday; his former wife Winnie Mandela and three daughters Pumla Makaziwe, Zenani and Zindziswa Mandela. South African anti-apartheid campaigner Nelson Mandela was released from prison after 27 years of incarceration on this day in 1990. From 1964 to 1982 Mandela was incarcerated at Robben Island Prison, off Cape Town. Mandela died on December 5, 2013, at the age of 95 in his home in Johannesburg, South Africa. Mandela’s writings and speeches were collected in I Am Prepared to Die (1964; rev. He stepped down from the presidency in 1999 after one term in office but continued with a busy public schedule. Nelson Mandela in prison on Robben Island, off Cape Town. He went underground (during which time he became known as the Black Pimpernel for his ability to evade capture) and was one of the founders of He attended South African Native College (later the University of Fort Hare) and studied law at the University of the Witwatersrand; he later passed the qualification exam to become a lawyer. Winnie Mandela was married to Nelson Mandela while he was imprisoned on Robben Island (Picture: Retuers) South African anti-apartheid campaigner Winnie Madikizela-Mandela has died at … Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). He was diagnosed and treated for prostate cancer in 2001 but made a full recovery. “Dare Not Linger: The Presidential Years”. He had six children, four girls and two boys. He attended South African Native College (later the University of Fort Hare) and studied law at the University of the Witwatersrand; he later passed the qualification exam to become a lawyer. It was July 18, 1918, when Nelson Mandela came into this world, but he wasn't born with the name Nelson. The South African government periodically made conditional offers of freedom to Mandela, most notably in 1976, on the condition that he recognize the newly independent—and highly controversial—status of the Transkei ed. These are unprecedented times, and the role of media to tell and record the story of South Africa as it develops is more important than ever. Mandela was born in 1918 in Mvezo in South Africa and pursued a career in law as a young man. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Nelson Mandela He was 87 years old. As South Africa’s political situation deteriorated after 1983, and particularly after 1988, he was engaged by ministers of Pres. His father served as a local chief and councillor to the monarch. Dec. 5, 2013 -- Nelson Mandela, the man who presided over the birth of a democratic South Africa and who is often referred to as a “secular saint,” has died at age 95 after a lengthy illness. A replica of the Robben Island cell in which Nelson Mandela was imprisoned, at the Nelson Mandela Museum, Qunu, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. From then on he married three times. All material © Mail & Guardian Online. In 1930, after the death of his father, Henry Gadla Mandela – a farmer who was also the main adviser to the Paramount Chief of the Tembu tribe – 12-year-old Nelson was sent to live in the chief’s Great Place, where his intelligence quickly marked him as the h… Nelson Mandela died in 2013, aged 95. His father died in 1930 when Mr Mandela was 12 and his mother died in 1968 when he was in prison. While the autobiography Long Walk to Freedom says his father died when he was nine, historical evidence shows it must have been later, most likely 1930. He refused to give up on his cause and his country. Mandela subsequently held other ANC leadership positions, through which he helped revitalize the organization and oppose the apartheid policies of the ruling National Party. After his father’s death, young Nelson was raised by Jongintaba, the regent of the Tembu. Nelson Mandela, in full Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, byname Madiba, (born July 18, 1918, Mvezo, South Africa—died December 5, 2013, Johannesburg), Black nationalist and the first Black president of South Africa (1994–99).

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