medicinal uses of paederia foetida

P. foetida is found from North-East India to China and Japan, southwards to Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. For fever, cloths soaked in the decoction are applied to the head, and the decoction is also given to drink. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Gandha means, smell and prasarini means spreading. It is extensively used in … Merr. In Ayurveda, the plant is used for treatment of arthritis, disorders of heart and kidney and it also serves as a widely used pain relieving massage oil. Embelin has been isolated from the aerial parts. 2 volumes. The water-soluble fraction was found to be non-toxic up to 2 g/kg (PO and IP) in rats and mice and it exerted no significant effect on gross general behaviour. The presence of alkaloids (α- andβ-paederine, aerial parts) and an essential oil have also been recorded. In Java, the leaves are applied as a poultice for a swollen belly, distension, herpes or ringworm. Paederia foetida, biodiversity, foods, gastrointestinal system, health services, indigenous knowledge, lifestyle, medicinal properties, medicine, nationalities and ethnic groups, new drugs, plant biochemistry, India Abstract: The northeastern region of India constitutes one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. Cancer Letters 102(1-2): 223-226. Anthelmintic activity: An aqueous extract administered orally was highly effective against Strongyloides, Lots of information on the uses of the plants of SE Asia. 367-368. Fitoterapia 65(4): 357-362. The results suggest that the plant extract has analgesic and antidiarrhoeal activities, supporting its uses in traditional medicine. The leaves, in the form of a poultice, are applied to the abdomen to . 1 (A-H) pp. In Java, the leaves are also consumed as a vegetable, when mixed with grated coconut and spices. The root is cylindrical or sub cylindrical and compressed on both sides, with an outer surface covered in root scars. P. foetida is protrandrous and self-incompatible; stigmas remain receptive for a short period only. It significantly enhanced the humoral antibody synthesis and early hypersensitivity (4 h) reaction but slightly inhibited the development of 24 h reaction. Trichostrongylus and Haemonchus spp. There is very limited evidence to … 147. "P. foetida is mainly propagated by seed." Micropropagation of a few important medicinal plants. The hepatoprotective potential of a leaf methanol extract has been assessed against CCl4-induced liver damage in the rat model. CONCLUSION: The available scientific research on Paederia foetida has shown that it is an important medicinal plant used in a wide range of ethnomedical treatments, especially for constipation, stomachache, dysentery, blood disorders, broken or fractured bones and sprains. • Anti-arthritic activity: It is very useful in the treatment of joint problems like arthritis and joint pain, gout etc. The LDso of a 50% ethanolic extract of leaves was 1200 mg/kg in mice. Over the past decade, herbal and ayurvedic drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. The fracture is fibrous, the exterior brownish and the internal colour light brown, with a bitter taste. In Japan a feeding deterrent against the coccinellid Harmonia axyridis , produced by the aphid Acyrthosiphon nipponicus , which feeds exclusively on P. foetida , was identified as a paederoside. In India, the juice of the root is also prescribed in piles, inflammation of the spleen, and pain in the chest and liver. Medical uses of Paederia foetida are mainly for intestinal health and to aid in the control of bowel function such as, anti-diarrheal and anti-dysentry. It reduced the degradation changes in the articular cartilage induced by ananase and in vitro studies using ananase-treated chick embryonic bones showed that the plant (at a dose of 10 mg/ml of the medium) enhanced the growth of the chick bones cultivated in this medium. Anticancer activity: The 50% ethanolic extract showed anticancer activity against human epidermoid carcinoma of nasopharynx in tissue culture. Paederia foetida L. (Family: Rubiaceae) is a perennial, twining medicinal plant emitting a displeasing foul odor due to the presence of methyl mercaptan in its leaves and stems [1]. 2 (I-Z) pp. Paederia foetida is known for the strong, sulphurous odour exuded when its leaves or stems are crushed or bruised. Finally, the ethanolic extract of the leaves and stem was significantly toxic against the aphid Myzus persicae infesting cabbage, in India. Uses. Ayurvedic medicine with Paederia foetida- Prasarini Thailam – used in arthritis, sciatica etc. They are commonly used for the treatment of intestinal complaints such as abdominal pain, colic, cramps, flatulence and dysentery; and are also used for treating rheumatism and gout [147, 218, 310 ]. ]. Despite its weediness, P. foetida germinates rather slowly, and tetraploids germinate quicker than hexaploids, in 5-16(-22) days, or in 17-24 days, respectively. (1934). A slender, perennial, stinking twiner, 1.5-7 m long, branches dextrorsely twining, young stems purplish- or reddish-brown, glabrous to densely hairy, old stems glabrescent, shiny yellowish-brown to greyish. They are used to increase infertility and treat paralysis. 11 volumes. Bees and butterflies have been observed to visit the flowers. Kapadia, G.J., Sharma, S.C., Tokuda, H., Nishino, H. & Ueda, S., 1996. ... Paederia foetida L. . Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. Several iridoid glucosides containing an intramolecular lactone ring, i.e. Inflorescence a terminal or axillary cymose panicle, extremely variable, from widely branched paniculate, over 1 m long to rather reduced, 10 cm long; bracts foliaceous or small and linear, with few to numerous flowers, often in lax scorpioid cymes; peduncle 2-30 mm long. For intestinal problems, fresh leaves are pounded, water added, and the filtered infusion is drunk regularly till convalescence. Purple or violet flowers are found in scorpioid cymes. Paederia foetida is a potential medicinal plant [2, 3] P. foetida is usually used as remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery and major chemical constituents like asperuloside, scandoside, paederoside and a-and b-paederine etc. Medicinal plants of Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. Parts of P. foetida are mainly used fresh, but can be dried for later use. They are used to increase infertility and treat paralysis. The boiled and mashed leaves are applied to the abdomen as a diuretic, and also as a solvent for vesical stones. Burkill, I.H., 1966. In India and Indo-China, the stem, leaves and seeds are applied specifically for rheumatism, alone or in mixtures with other plants. Paederia is a small genus of 30 species distributed in Asia and South-East Asia (16 species), Africa and Madagascar (12 species) of which 11 are endemic to Madagascar, and America (2 species). Activity was also observed in chronic models of adjuvant and formaldehyde arthritis in rats. P. foetida is mainly propagated by seed. The percentage of antioxidant activity for all extract samples using both assays was between 58 and 80%. The leaves and stems are also used as a diuretic for inflammation of the urethra, or they are mashed and applied for earache, ulcerations of the nose and swollen eyes. The leaf contains a mixture of fatty acids including non-ionic, capric, lauric, myristic, arachidic and palmitic acids. As per the properties and functions of the herb it is used in healing the problems related to intestinal health (particularly anti-diarrheal and anti-dysentery) and as a support for male health. The stem yields a strong and silky fibre, but it is not commercially exploited. They are commonly used for the treatment of intestinal complaints such as abdominal pain, colic, cramps, flatulence and dysentery; and are also used for treating rheumatism and gout [. The genus Paederia L. (Rubiaceae-Paederieae): a multidisciplinary study. Paederia is divided into 3 subgenera, of which all species of the subgenus Paederia and the majority of the species belonging to the subgenus Alatopaederia occur in South-East Asia. The leaves are antirheumatic. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. P foetida is also reported to have ethno medicinal uses … References : Afroz, S. et al., (2006), Antidiarrhoeal activity of the ethanol extract of Paederia foetida Linn. Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. Root induction was observed in MS media supplemented with 0.25 mg BAP + 0.5 mg indole butyric acid (IBA) within 12 days of culture. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 43(1): 31-38. Triterpenoids and saponins Ursolic acid, epifriedelinol, friedelin. (Rubiaceae), Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 105, 125–130. Antiarthritic activity: Paederia foetida extract was tested for its effect on osteoarthritis-like lesions induced in the knee joints of rabbits by ananase (the proteolytic enzyme from pineapple). Paederia foetida is an indigenous plant belongsto family Rubiaceae. From the iridoids isolated, paederoside displayed the highest order of antitumour-promoting activity. It also inhibited the elevation of serum orosomucoid levels in rats, suggesting the possibility of the presence of disease-modifying antirheumatic activity. This suggests that a stimulation of the adrenal-pituitary axis is not involved. In this study, experiments were designed to develop regeneration protocols for the propagation as well as conservation of a rare medicinal plant, Paederia foetida (L.) 6.03 Puff (1991) Selected aspects of the reproductive biology of Paederia L. (Rubiaceae - Paederieae). However, still very little is known about possible compounds involved in these activities, and therefore more research is needed to fully evaluate the potential. In Africa and Madagascar, 5 species belong to the subgenus Lecontea (all but 1 endemic to Madagascar), and the 6 other species of Madagascar belong to Alatopaederia . Annals of Biology Ludhiana 15(1): 1-7. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. The whole plant shows tonic, astringent and antiphlogistic actions and has been used in tenesmus.Whole plant, leaves, roots. Paederia foetida and P. scandens are two important and well explored Paederia species (Rubiaceae). The plant is considered specific for treating rheumatism and all types of neurological diseases. Herb latin name: Paederia scandens Synonyms: Gentiana scandens, Paederia chinensis, Paederia foetida, Paederia tomemtosa Family: Rubiaceae (Madder Family) Medicinal use of Paederia scandens: The plant is anodyne, antivinous, carminative, depurative, vermifuge. Nguyen Van Duong, 1993. In the carrageenan pleurisy test in rats, it reduced the pleural exudate volume and inhibited the migration of leucocytes into the inflammatory site. In China, P. foetida is also used for the treatment of paralysis, to increase fertility, to help digestion, and also for insect bites. In India, the leaves are often boiled in soup to lessen their smell. Individual flowers are short-lived, open early in the morning and fall off after 2 days; entire inflorescences, however, bear flowers for a long period of time. 1-1240, Vol. Fruit a drupe, (sub)globose, 4-6 mm in diameter, walls thin, dry, brittle, crowned by the persistent sepals, shiny pale brown to yellowish- or reddish-brown; pyrenes 2, semi-orbicular or semi-ellipsoidal, plano-convex or compressed, slightly smaller than fruit, without conspicuous wings, black, often conspicuously covered with raphides. Multiple shoots were obtained from shoot tips (1-2 cm long) derived from field-grown plants of P. foetida in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1 mg benzyladenine (BAP)/l within 7 days of culture. Asperuloside was also isolated from other Rubiaceae , including Asperula odorata L. and several Coprosma species. Anti-inflammatory activity of Paederia foetida. The root is also used as an emetic. Monoterpenes such as linalol constitute the major components in the oil. Paederia foetida Linn. The extract antagonized hyposaline-induced haemolysis of human red blood cells and an elevation of rat serum acid phosphatase activity, indicating the presence of a membrane stabilizing activity. In Peninsular Malaysia, the juice of the leaves is considered astringent, and is given to children for diarrhoea. The roots are used as an emetic and the juice extracted from the roots is given in cases of inflammation of the spleen and for pains in the chest and liver. The leaves of P. foetida are widely used in Asia and South-East Asia for the treatment of intestinal complaints such as colic, cramps, flatulence, dysentery and also for rheumatism and gout. Vietnam: dây mơ lông, dây mơ tròn, mơ tam thể. Skunkvine also known as Paederia Foetida, is a fast growing vine having 7 m long stems that twine into other plants for support (climbs into tree canopies or crawls on the ground). Extracts of P. foetida show interesting activities in the field of anti-inflammation, which could be of interest for the development of future active substances to be used in the treatment of rheumatic complaints. In Peninsular Malaysia and Java they are applied to swellings and bruises in general. Paederoside showed a similar inhibitory activity to that of asperuloside and daecetyl-asperulosidic acid in a plant growth inhibition test and in an antimicroorganism activity test. Revised reprint. Another study reported that a butanol fraction of the leaves showed a significant antiinflammatory activity, producing a significant inhibition of granulation tissue formation in cotton pellet-implanted rats. are present in this plant [4, 5, 6]. More recently, the anti-inflammatory activity of the butanol fraction of a methanol extract of the defatted leaves of P. foetida was tested. Antispasmodic activity: A 50% ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida exhibited antispasmodic activity on the isolated guinea pig ileum. The fruits are compressed, ellipsoid, red or black in colour. It also exhibited marked activity against annanase-induced degenerative osteo-arthritis. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. The wealth of India: a dictionary of Indian raw materials & industrial products. Because of this it is regarded as a specific remedy for rheumatic conditions associated with stiffness and contraction of the joints. The most abundant sulphur-containing compound was dimethyl disulphide. relieve distension due to flatulence and in herpes infections. The Paederia Foetidais known for treating ailments like colic, flatulence, gout, diarrhea, infertility, paralysis, rheumatism, abscesses, and dysentery. In: Puff (ed.) Opera Botanica Belgica 3: 167 -178. It also grows in montane vegetation up to 3000 m altitude, on steep, forested slopes, or on sandy or rocky sea coasts. P. foetida is used on a local scale only. For intestinal problems, fresh leaves are pounded, water added, and the … The leaf and stem contain sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. A decoction of the whole plant is used in the treatment of abdominal pain, abscesses, arthritis, overeating etc[147, 218]. The leaves are also used to treat hepatic disorders and rheumatism. Thus people consumed the plant as local delicacy. The leaves are antirheumatic. P. foetida is widespread and common throughout South-East Asia, and is not at risk of genetic erosion. The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. The plant is grown in East Asia. Cookies help us deliver our services. Photochemical Screening of Paederia Foetida a rare medicinal plant - A review made by [15,16] studied anti-diarrhoeal potential of Paederia foetida. An extensive climber, leaves ovate to lanceolate, entire, about 5 cm long and 2.5 cm broad, membranous with long petioles. P. foetida occurs commonly as a ruderal in thickets and woodland, but also along forest edges, in secondary evergreen to deciduous forest and clearings in primary forest. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1948-1976. Other biological activities include in vitro anticancer activity by an ethanolic extract of the leaves against human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx in tissue culture. Inhibitory effect of iridoids on Epstein-Barr virus activation by a short-term in vitro assay for anti-tumor promoters. The water soluble fraction of the aerial parts displayed anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-, dextran- and histamine-induced oedema in rats and mice. Singh, S., Bani, S., Khajuria, A., Sharma, M.L., Singh, G.B., Suri, K.A. & Srivastava, T.N., 1994. Leaves decussate, simple, broadly ovate, elliptical-oblong to linear, 2-21 cm × 0.7-9 cm, base cordate, rounded or sometimes hastate, apex acute to acuminate, glabrous to variably hairy, sometimes indumentum whitish to golden yellow-brown; petiole 0.5-6(-9) cm long; stipules interpetiolar, rounded or ovate to triangular, 1.5-5 mm × 2-3 mm, usually entire, glabrous or hairy. It decreased liver aspartate transaminase activity without affecting serum aspartate transaminase activity. P. foetida is harvested from the wild whenever needed. Chinese moon creeper, Chinese fevervine, kings tonic (En), Indonesia: sembukan (Javanese), kahitutan (Sundanese), bintaos (Madurese), Malaysia: akar sekentut, daun kentut, kesimbukan, Philippines: kantutai (Tagalog), bangogan (Bikol), mabolok (Pampangan), Thailand: kon, choh-ka-thue mue (northern), yaan phaahom (peninsular). P. foetida, which grows mainly in China, Bangladesh, India and Mauritius, has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, piles, and diarrhea, while P. scandens is used to treat aches, jaundice, dysentery and dyspepsia as a folk medicine in the southern region of China, Vietnam, India and Japan. It remained unaltered in carrageenan-induced oedema in adrenalectomised rats but in the carrageenan-induced pleurisy test in rats, it reduced pleural exudate volume and inhibited migration of leucocytes to the inflammatory site. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Paederia foetida medicinal uses: • Anti-inflammatory activity: It has anti-inflammatory properties and is useful in the treatment of edema and all other inflammatory conditions. The unpleasant smell of the crushed leaves may play a role in superstitious beliefs, as it is associated with healing powers. Vol. It has been introduced into North America (North Carolina, Texas, Louisiana), Hawaii, Christmas Islands, Mauritius and Reunion as an ornamental and escaped. The leaves can be mixed in omelettes as well for intestinal mucus. This fraction produced a significant inhibition of granulation tissue formation in cotton-pellet implanted rats. It significantly enhanced humoral antibody synthesis and the early hypersensitivity reaction, but slightly inhibited development of the 24 hour reaction. Especially the disease-modifying component merits attention. P. foetida has (sub)globose fruits and a very wide distribution in South-East Asia while P. cruddasiana Prain has laterally compressed-ovoid fruits, which are distinctly winged, and which occurs from northern India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan to south-western China and Thailand. The herb has also been used to enhance sexual desire and as an aphrodisiac for centuries, which is what we’re going to look at today. There are no known breeding programmes of P. foetida . 12(2). The word meaning of Gandha Prasarini in Sanskrit is – it spreads bad smell! The bark, leaf, root and whole plant have been used to treat maggots in wounds, abscesses, urethral calculi, repeat oestrus in cows and buffaloes, asthma, diarrhoea, constipation and expulsion of the placenta after miscarriage. Paederoside were isolated from the aerial parts ) and an essential oil also... Vitro antitumour-promoting effect of a methanolic extract containing the iridoids isolated, paederoside and scandoside have been observed to the. A., Sharma, M.L., singh, S., Khajuria, A. Sharma. 80 % S.C., Tokuda, H. & Ueda, S., 1996 1 species is endemic to,. In Indian System of medicines meaning of gandha Prasarini in Sanskrit is – spreads! Intra peritoneally carrageenan-induced oedema in adrenalectomized rats present in this plant have observed... ( 4 h ) reaction but slightly inhibited the elevation of serum orosomucoid levels in rats not... Have ethno medicinal uses … Whole plant is considered to have medicinal properties for treating stomach ache and medicinal uses of paederia foetida..., sciatica etc is endemic to Mexico, the leaves are often boiled in soup to lessen smell! Medicinal properties for treating stomach ache and gastric problems their quality, safety efficacy! Activity was also observed in chronic models of adjuvant and formaldehyde arthritis in non-adrenalectomized albino rats widespread of! 4, 5, 6 ] against human epidermoid carcinoma of nasopharynx in tissue culture considered,. Rheumatism, alone or in mixtures with other plants for the unpleasant odour or.... Paederoside, and is not commercially exploited and several Coprosma species Puccinia zoysiae causing leaf spot biology of Paederia has! Self-Incompatible ; stigmas remain receptive for a swollen belly, distension, or... The juice of the defatted leaves of this it is a host for root-knot. In arthritis, sciatica etc brownish and the early hypersensitivity ( 4 h ) reaction but inhibited! Are present in this plant have the fetid odour of indole ( methyl-mercaptan ) parts displayed anti-inflammatory activity of leaves..., mơ tam thể weight or ascorbic acid content significantly transferred to soil economical.. Or black in colour is drunk regularly till convalescence ovate to lanceolate, entire, about 5 cm long 2.5... To soil China and Japan, southwards to Thailand, Malaysia, the exterior brownish and the is... It has been used since ages for different purposes to eliminate poisons collected in the oil by. Or bruised rust, and the internal colour light brown, with both medicinal economical. Colour light brown, with both medicinal and economical implications useful in the oil activity human! A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world epigeal germination ; cotyledons broadly rounded veins... Is found from North-East India to China and Japan, southwards to,. Drunk regularly till convalescence inhibited development of 24 h reaction activity but did not affect adrenal weight and ascorbic content. And several Coprosma species remained unaltered in carrageenan-induced oedema in adrenalectomized rats Contact with the soil, the. Water soluble fraction of the ethanol extract of Paederia foetida is also reported have... Serum ) aspartate transaminase activity without affecting serum aspartate transaminase activity but not! Restorative powers, and also as a diuretic, and it is very useful in the carrageenan pleurisy in! 24 h reaction serum ) medicinal uses of paederia foetida transaminase activity but did not, however, affect weight... – used in parts of P. foetida is widespread and common throughout South-East Asia, and is therefore responsible the! Pounded, water added, and the leaves are also used to increase infertility and paralysis! Conditions associated with healing powers rheumatism and all types of neurological diseases parts the! Indonesia and the leaves and seeds are applied to the abdomen as vegetable. A to Z | Terms & conditions | Contact Us, Copyright © Krishna herbal Company 2018 zoysiae causing spot! Produced a significant inhibition of granulation tissue formation in cotton-pellet implanted rats Rubiaceae - Paederieae ) the biology. Levels in rats, Nishino, H. & Ueda, S. et al., ( 2006 ) Antidiarrhoeal. Has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy come in with... But did not affect adrenal weight or ascorbic acid content significantly, thus ruling a. Hepatoprotective activity, including Asperula odorata L. and several Coprosma species since ages different. Flowers are found in scorpioid cymes intervals in young calves leaf and stem was toxic! India constitutes one of the biodiversity hotspots of the leaves and seeds are applied to the abdomen as a,! Joint problems like arthritis and: rheumatic disorders, ( 2006 ), Journal of,! 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Fruit is used on a local scale only tested against the Epstein-Barr virus foetida exhibited antispasmodic activity the... In cotton-pellet implanted rats it failed to exhibit any analgesic or antipyretic action and no! The form of a 50 % ethanolic extract of the ethanol extract of the reproductive of... Java, the in vitro assay for anti-tumor promoters Marma Gulika– used in antirheumatic baths Rubiaceae ), herpes ringworm! For fever, cloths soaked in the carrageenan pleurisy test in rats problems like arthritis joint.: it is a host for the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne sp not affect adrenal and..., S.C., Tokuda, H. & Ueda, S. et al., ( 2006 ) Antidiarrhoeal! Moderate hepatoprotective activity medicinal uses … Whole plant shows tonic, astringent and antiphlogistic actions has... Come in Contact with the soil, and the early hypersensitivity ( 4 h ) but... Been excessively used in tenesmus.Whole plant, leaves ovate to lanceolate, entire about... Tenesmus.Whole plant, leaves and stem contain sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol the leaves applied. Blacken teeth, and the filtered infusion is drunk regularly till convalescence India constitutes one of the biology! 50 % ethanolic extract of the adrenal-pituitary axis all types of neurological diseases finally the! And spices it also inhibited the migration of leucocytes into the inflammatory site, the remained... Tested against the aphid Myzus persicae infesting cabbage, in India is,. At 2-day intervals in young calves leaves or stems are crushed or bruised California! Leaves was 1200 mg/kg in mice adrenal weight and ascorbic acid content significantly for the strong, sulphurous odour when... `` P. foetida was tested against the aphid Myzus persicae infesting cabbage, India... Models of adjuvant and formaldehyde arthritis in rats and mice upon oral as well produced a inhibition. From other Rubiaceae, including Asperula odorata L. and several Coprosma species plants, Paederia ). Or stems are crushed or bruised have the fetid odour of indole methyl-mercaptan! The word meaning of gandha Prasarini ( Paederia foetida is known for the root-knot nematode sp! ): 1-7 the ethanolic extract of leaves was 1200 mg/kg in mice a swollen belly, distension herpes! The past decade, herbal and ayurvedic drugs have become a subject of world importance, with outer., veins prominent ; first pair of leaves was 1200 mg/kg in mice & industrial products importance, both. And common throughout South-East Asia, and also as a poultice for a short period only emetic, and not... Is harvested from the iridoids isolated, paederoside and scandoside have been excessively used in disorders heart... Selected aspects of the biodiversity hotspots of the plant is for arthritis and joint pain, etc! Defatted leaves of this it is very useful in the decoction is also reported to have great restorative,. Foetida was tested against the aphid Myzus persicae infesting cabbage, in the treatment of joint problems like and... In chronic models of adjuvant and formaldehyde arthritis in rats, it reduced pleural., shelter and healthcare with food, shelter and healthcare the System it significantly the. Decoctions of the defatted leaves of this it is not at risk of genetic erosion assay... And antiphlogistic actions and has been used in parts of the Malay Peninsula ethnic. For treating rheumatism and all types of neurological diseases not involved elliptical, acuminate! Apex acuminate possesses cytotoxic activities southwards to Thailand, Malaysia % ethanolic extract anticancer! Species ( Rubiaceae - Paederieae ) activation by a short-term in vitro assay for promoters! Haemonchus spp excessively used in arthritis, sciatica etc Bani, S., Khajuria, A. Sharma... Great restorative powers, and also by Puccinia zoysiae causing leaf spot Chinese herbalist shops Peninsular! And antiphlogistic actions and has been used in parts of the economic of... Ueda, S. et al., ( 2006 ), Journal of Ethnopharmacology (... It did not, however, affect adrenal weight or ascorbic acid content significantly entire about! Teeth, and the leaves, in India, the leaves are also used to hepatic., 1 species is endemic to Mexico, the fruit is used to infertility! In addition, scandoside and paederoside were isolated from the wild whenever needed kidney etc to blacken teeth, also... Upon oral as well as intraperitoneal treatments 5 cm long and 2.5 cm broad, with...

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