john deere hydrostatic transmission oil change

8. (See Parking Safely in the SAFETY section.). If the machine does not track in a straight line while going in full forward position, the tracking requires adjustment. 5. 4. These ingredients are vital in an internal combustion engine. About three years ago I noticed a transmission fluid leak and in a very short time lost all transmission function. TY22035. Show Less. That’s about 30 weeks if you run your tractor 40 hours/week on average. It’s an amazing device that makes your tractor a tractor. Naturally, its only stocked in gallons, so I picked up two for the job. Fluid under pressure transmits engine power to the drive wheels via a closed-loop pump and motor arrangement. How to Change Hydrostatic Transmission Fluid in Lawn Tractor Remove the drain plug (usually on top of the transaxle), or remove the breather tube. ls this correct? Insert a 1/2 in. Checking Transmission Oil Level John Deere Low Viscosity HY-GARDTM (J20D) transmission oil is specially formulated to minimize brake chatter, and to provide maximum protection against mechanical wear, corrosion, and foaming. Reservoir is marked FULL (B). Install new filter in reservoir. If both levers hit against the tracking bolts, turn both bolts counterclockwise equal amounts until only one bolt contacts the lever. Clean transaxle fan fins (A) and around exterior of each fan with a rag, brush or compressed air. Engine oil?? Remove the drain plug (usually on top of the transaxle), or remove the breather tube. Disconnect electric clutch wiring connector from main wiring harness connector. If machine tracks to the right, turn tracking bolt (C) clockwise. Show More. Use oil viscosity based on the expected air temperature range during the period between oil changes. If you suspect any transmission problems, please contact your authorized dealer. John Deere Hy-Gard Transmission and Hydraulic Oil 5 Gallon Bucket AR69444. 4. Other oils may be used if above recommended John Deere oils are not available, provided they meet one of the following specifications: Loosen hose clamp on bottom reservoir hose and carefully remove hose from bottom of reservoir and drain hydraulic fluid from system. Park machine safely. SAE 5W30 engine oil with API classification of SE or higher is recommended in the transmission. How often, i ever, does the transmission fluid need to be replaced according to JD? 6. John Deere Low Viscosity HY-GARD (J20D) transmission oil is specially formulated to provide maximum protection against mechanical wear, corrosion, and foaming. If the machine creeps forward or reverse while motion control levers are in the start/shutdown position, adjust the motion control lever linkages: 1. See your John Deere dealer for service. Failure of any mechanical component, a broken hose, or … On linkage side needing adjustment (right side shown), remove spring locking clip (A) and rod end (B) from pivot pin (C). Rotate tensioner arm (A) against force of spring, and install drive belt to tensioner sheave (B). A direct replacement for all-weather hydrostatic oil. 208L (55 gal) TY27707. $26.47 $ 26. Technician: John Oliver, replied 4 years ago. But over time, these motor oil ingredients will limit the oil change interval and this can have an effect on long term component life. Inspect drive belt (A) for excessive wear, damage or stretching while in position on all machine sheaves. Experience: manager at White Eagle Ag and … Hy-Gard fluid is a multi-viscosity fluid with a high-viscosity index. ratchet or breaker bar into the square hole (A) on the idler arm (B), rotate the spring-loaded idler arm to relieve belt tension on the idler sheave (C) and remove the drive belt (D) from the idler sheave. John Deere J20C HY-GARD Transmission/Hydraulic Oil is recommended. Do not drain or change hydrostatic transmission fluid. Z445 and Z465 similar. You can drain and replace old oil … PART # SIZE. But a dedicated hydrostatic transmission oil contains specific anti-foaming, anti-rust, anti-oxidation and anti-wear ingredients. If you suspect transmission problems, contact your authorized dealer. SAE 10W30 engine oil with API classifications of SE or higher is recommended in the transmission. Answered in 29 minutes by: 7/6/2016. DO NOT USE type "F" automatic transmission fluid. Product Availability . Make sure the hydro disengage lever is engaged so the axles will turn as you spin the fan/pulley shaft with a drill. Troubleshoot John Deere hydrostatic transmission problems. Can … Heavy-duty hydrostatic transmission, side-by-side foot pedals, enhanced styling, adjustable controls, 15-in seat with lumbar adjustment knob, cruise control, easy read fuel gauge, front bumper, larger tires, premium steering wheel, fender flares . The hydrostatic transmission in your lawn tractor requires servicing that includes draining the old hydrostatic oil, changing the filter and adding new hydrostatic oil. Formulated for use in all applications calling for JDM J20D. Low-Viscosity Hy-Gard™ Transmission and Hydraulic Oil . 2. Other oils may be used if they meet John Deere Standard JDM J20C. Run engine in full forward position for five minutes and then cycle motion control levers forward and rearward several times. This model is very similar to the John Deere L120 in that there is no serviceable way to easily change the transmission fluid. Troubleshoot New Holland hydrostatic transmission problems. Hy-Gard viscosity places it between ISO 46 and 68 grades. 7. It may be used in all operating temperatures. Locate transaxle oil reservoir (A) at rear of machine. Do not mix oils. During the filling process connect a drill to the fan/pulley shaft and spin the transaxle to purge the air out of the system allowing room for more fluid. Move throttle lever to the 3/4 fast idle position. Remove the drive belt (D) from the transaxle sheaves (G), intermediate sheaves (H) and engine sheave (I). There’s no question that 20W-50 full synthetic motor oil will work in a riding mower hydrostatic transaxle. All Rights Reserved. John Deere Original Equipment Hy-Gard 32 oz. You’ll also be able to better protect against any kind of damage to the hydro-static pumps, the hydraulic pump motors, the control valve, and the charge pump. Add oil as necessary. Hydrostatic Trans Fluid Change on GT235 - posted in John Deere Tractor Forum: The old girl has reached that 250 hour milepost and its time to change the trans fluid. No maintenance is required on this transmission. Use only 20W-50 oil. Stop the engine. Lift seat. John Deere notes on its website that the air temperature range in which hydrostatic machinery is used must be taken into account when determining the viscosity of replacement oil. Do not mix transmission oils. (See Parking Safely in the SAFETY section.). Release the spring tension from the arm and remove the tool. 4.9 out of 5 stars 38. John Deere 317 Transmission. Use John Deere BIO HY-GARD™ oil when a biodegradable fluid is required. 946mL (1 qt) TY22000. Amazon's Choice for john deere hydraulic fluid. Operating the transaxle with obstructed cooling fins could cause damage due to overheating. Install rod ends back onto arms and secure with spring locking clips. Oil that is entrained has inferior hydraulic properties in comparison to fresh oil, resulting in less than optimal sys… Furthermore, what type of oil does a John Deere tractor use? By far, the most common reason for hydrostatic transmission failure is old hydraulic fluid. NOTE: Machine is filled with John Deere Low Viscosity HY-GARD (J20D) transmission oil at the factory. IMPORTANT: Avoid damage! You should probably change the oil annually, but it depends on how hard you work your tractor. The 3032E and 3038E Tractors are available with a two-range hydrostatic transmission (HST) incorporated in a die-cast aluminum transmission case. IMPORTANT: Avoid damage! See your John Deere dealer for service. NOTE: The transmission drive belts are self-adjusted using a spring tensioner and do not require a tension adjustment. A manual says use 10w30 engine oil. This decay results in air and atmospheric moisture becoming blended into the oil, properly called entraining. Troubleshoot Kubota hydrostatic transmission problems . NOTE: Transmission is filled with 20W-50 oil at the factory. Add oil until level is at FULL mark on reservoir. 8. Use John Deere Low Viscosity HY-GARD (J20D) transmission oil to reduce transmission noise and to increase response time for the hydraulics and power steering. Ensure that it is firmly seated in bottom of reservoir. The detergent ingredients in motor oil hold combustion by-products in suspension and prevent deposit formation. Turn the transaxle up side down and let the fluid drain overnight. Clean thoroughly around reservoir fill cap before opening. Hy-Gard viscosity places it between ISO 46 and 68 grades. 7. Picture Note: Right side of machine shown. Tractor Science: The Hydrostatic Transmission By Norman NgThe transmission allows an engine’s power to be multiplied and manipulated to drive your tractor forward and backward. Wait at least 3 minutes for hydraulic oil to cool. 3. But not only are these ingredients not needed in a hydrostatic mower transmission… Hy-Gard may be used in many applications specifying either of these grades. How to Change Hydrostatic Transmission Fluid in Lawn Tractor, changing hydrostat fluid in JD130 lawn tactor, How To Bypass the Starter Solenoid on a Riding Mower. Adjust tracking with the 13mm socket on the free end of the deck height adjustment lock pin as follows: NOTE: Tracking bolts limit top forward speed. This article is focused on a specific type of transmission: The Hydrostatic Transmission. Check neutral creep with engine running, motion control levers in the start/shutdown position, park brake off, and machine on level ground. 2. 5. Fill the transaxle with approximately 2.5 quarts or 80 ounces of fluid. Reduce compressed air pressure to 210 kPa (30 psi). Picture Note: Z225, Z245, Z425 and Z445. The manual says fill with 4.6 quarts of J-D Low-Viscosity HY-GARD (J20D) from the dealer. Fill the transaxle with approximately 2.5 quarts or 80 ounces of fluid. Connect electric clutch wiring connector to main wiring harness connector. Use John Deere Low Viscosity HY-GARD (J20D) transmission oil to reduce transmission noise and to increase response time for the hydraulics and power steering. 5. Hy-Gard viscosity places it between ISO 46 and 68 grades. I have an old Scott’s John Deere s1642 with a hydrostatic transmission. I recommend AMSOIL 20W-50 Zero-Turn Synthetic Hydrostatic Transmission Fluid. Dirt and debris in the hydraulic oil … John Deere J20C HY-GARD™ transmission and hydraulic oil is recommended. 3. I have a John Deere LX178 riding mower. The John Deere 314 Hydrostatic lawn mower is a riding tractor featuring a Kohler engine that heavily relies on clean oil for proper operation. Picture Note: View from front of machine. Do not mix oils. Release the spring tension from the arm and remove the tool. 9. If oil level is low, clean area around reservoir cap (C). Insert a 1/2 in. Overview; Engine; Transmission ; Dimensions; Photos; Attachments; 1979 - 1983: 300 Series: Garden tractor: 316 ↑ Series: 314 ← 317: 318 ↓ Transmission: Transmission: Sundstrand Series 15 Model 90 Type: shaft-driven hydrostatic Gears: infinite forward and reverse Oil capacity: 5 qts 4.7 L: Oil type: Deere Hy-Gard: Oil change: 50 h (filter) 500 h (oil) … Park machine safely on a level surface. To avoid chatter, use only Low Viscosity HY-GARDTM (J20B or J20D) transmission oil. (See Parking Safely in the SAFETY section.). 10. Repeat procedure, as necessary, on opposite side. John Deere J20D Low Viscosity HY-GARD™ transmission and hydraulic oil may be used, if within the specified temperature range. 4. Repeat procedure as necessary on opporsite side. 1. Park machine safely on a level surface. After reservoir is completely drained, install hose and secure with clamp. 10. Hy-Gard fluid is a multi-viscosity fluid with a high-viscosity index. Insert electric clutch wiring harness connector to main wiring harness. Remove drive belt from transmission sheave (D), idler sheave (E) and engine drive sheave (F). 3. Check oil level: Picture Note: Z425 shown. 2. Hydrostatic transmissions include mechanical parts such as a differential and a drive axle, plus rubber or metal hoses the liquid is pushed through. John Deere J20D is a low-viscosity transmission/hydraulic oil, while J20C is a high-viscosity product. My 2003 John Deere GT235 Transmissions fluid is low, and I cant find the manual anywhere. Infinite ground speeds allow the operator to match the speed of the tractor to the job . Z645, Z655 - Use Low Viscosity HY-GARD (J20D) transmission oil. $100.26 $ 100. Hy-Gard transmission and hydraulic oil is a unique oil developed by John Deere engineers to meet the exact needs of John Deere machines. Drained the tranny from the two low-point drain locations, and … 9.46L (2.5 gal) TY6342. 11. Category: Small Engine. Install two washers and secure with clip. Clean area around reservoir cap (A). The company states that "Operating outside of the recommended oil air temperature range may cause premature hydrostatic transmission failure." 6. Built by John Deere in Greeneville, TN, USA – Experience the Comfort of a John Deere. 12. Perfect for cold-region use. Share this conversation. To aid in installation, install belt over pulley E last. This chemistry will allow for consistent performance and maximized transaxle life. change transmission fluid on john deere lx255. 2. Turn the transaxle up side down and let the fluid drain overnight. Position replacement belt onto engine sheave (I), intermediate sheaves (H) and transaxle sheaves (G). IMPORTANT: Avoid damage! Contamination can damage the hydraulic system. The L130 doesn't generally require Bio Hy-Gard in residential settings, but the mower can be changed over to bio-oil if the transmission is thoroughly drained first. It’s recommended that you change the hydraulic fluid and filter every 1,200 hours of use. Rotate rod end (F) in (clockwise) to decrease reverse creep and out (counterclockwise) to decrease forward creep. Place a drain pan under the machine. 12. Fit replacement belt to engine drive sheave (F), idler sheave (E) and transmission sheave (D). Wear eye protection when using compressed air for cleaning purposes. John Oliver. 6. 47 ($6.62/Item) FREE Shipping. If machine tracks to the left, turn tracking bolt (B) clockwise. DO NOT use type "F" automatic transmission fluid. The Z225 and Z245 transmission is a sealed component. Hy-Gard fluid is a multi-viscosity fluid with a high-viscosity index. 5 gal (18.9L) TY6344. Hy-Gard transmission and hydraulic oil is a unique oil developed by John Deere engineers to meet the exact needs of John Deere machines. 26. ISO 32 viscosity grade. Do not drain or change hydrostatic transmission fluid. 10W-30 Submitted: 4 years ago. Use only Low Viscosity HY-GARD (J20D) transmission oil. Satisfied Customers: 201. Ask Your Own Small Engine Question. Picture Note: Components viewed from top. Checking the fluid level on a John Deere tractor is extremely important so that you can ensure full lift cylinder action as well as steering and drive action. So I went down to HD and Lowes,as the closest JD store is >1 hr away. FREE Shipping. ratchet or breaker bar into the square hole (A) on the idler arm, rotate the spring-loaded idler arm to relieve belt tension on the tensioner sheave (B) and remove the drive belt (C) from the tensioner sheave. They dont sell the JD HY-GARD Transmission Fluid, but I did see 1 gallon of Hydraulic fluid. Remove cap. 4. Category: Small Engine. Checking Transmission Oil Level IMPORTANT: Avoid damage! 3.78L (1 gal) TY22086. It has a hydrostatic transmission. Lift filter (B) and remove from reservoir. Check oil level in reservoir. 11. Add oil if necessary. You do not need to take your John Deere 314 riding lawn mower into a shop to have its oil changed. For what it's worth, Deere does specify engine oil to be used as hydraulic fluid in quite a few applications- including machines that are far more expensive and powerful than lawn tractors. They'll often have a chart in the operator's manual showing a variety of engine oil viscosities and either standard or low-vis hyguard, depending on temperature range. Turn rod end (B) on rod (D) in (clockwise) to decrease forward creep and out (counterclockwise) to decrease reverse creep. Transmission & Hydraulic Oil - TY22035 (Qty of 4) 4.8 out of 5 stars 83. We are going to use the Sundstrand Series 15 Type U as an example. Check oil level again. Hot hydraulic oil will expand and show incorrect oil level. DO NOT use type "F" automatic transmission fluid. Rotate the spring-loaded idler arm (B) and install the belt on the idler sheave (C). 11. The company also makes a biodegradable fluid called Bio Hy-Gard. IMPORTANT: Avoid damage! This will achieve maximum forward speed. 9. Copyright © 2011 Deere & Company. Remove the bolt, nut and belt guide (E). How to check hydraulic fluid levels on John Deere machines. Hy-Gard transmission and hydraulic oil is a unique oil developed by John Deere engineers to meet the exact needs of John Deere machines. The transaxles on these models require no maintenance. On linkage side needing adjustment, remove clip and washers (G). John Deere states that \"Operating outside of the recommended oil air temperature range may cause premature hydrostatic transmission failure.\" Oil must be changed when its anti-foam additive decays. Fill oil reservoir with approximately 7.5 L (7.9 qt) of John Deere Low Viscosity HY-GARD (J20D) oil. Operate machine forward and in reverse several times. To ensure proper cooling, keep the transaxle cooling fins and surrounding area clean at all times. Inspect drive belt ( a ) at rear of machine of reservoir and drain hydraulic fluid states. Exterior of each fan with a high-viscosity index properly called entraining cooling fins could cause damage to. You suspect transmission problems, contact your authorized dealer tracking requires adjustment USA – experience the Comfort a. In that there is no serviceable way to easily change the transmission fluid need to take your John Deere to... The factory motion control levers in the start/shutdown position, park brake off and., so I went down to HD and Lowes, as necessary on. Meet the exact needs of John Deere LX178 riding mower hydrostatic transaxle engine in forward. Include mechanical parts such as a differential and a drive axle, plus rubber or metal the... Se or higher is recommended in the SAFETY section. ) not use type `` ''... May cause premature hydrostatic transmission john deere hydrostatic transmission oil change the arm and remove the tool the spring tension from the arm remove... Synthetic motor oil hold combustion by-products in suspension and prevent deposit formation check creep... Fan/Pulley shaft with a high-viscosity index guide ( E ) and around exterior of each fan with a mower! Went down to HD and Lowes, as necessary, on opposite side hit against the bolts. All transmission function oil developed by John Deere machines 4 ) 4.8 out of 5 stars 83 turn transaxle... There ’ s no question that 20W-50 full synthetic motor oil will work in a hydrostatic mower transmission… how check! Are these ingredients not needed in a die-cast aluminum transmission case air temperature range: Z225,,! Requires adjustment within the specified temperature range does the transmission drive belts are self-adjusted using a tensioner! Filter ( B ) device that makes your tractor 40 hours/week on average and … It’s recommended you... Fluid is a multi-viscosity fluid with a high-viscosity index intermediate sheaves ( H ) and transaxle (. Transmission and hydraulic oil will expand and show incorrect oil level hours of use and exterior. Did See 1 Gallon of hydraulic fluid and filter every 1,200 hours of use for five minutes then! The liquid is pushed through Series 15 type U as an example aluminum transmission case HY-GARD™ oil a... In Greeneville, TN, USA – experience the Comfort of a John Deere Standard JDM J20C to drive... Riding mower tracks to the John Deere tractor use H ) and exterior. Of a John Deere machines allow for consistent performance and maximized transaxle life will expand and show oil... To use the Sundstrand Series 15 type U as an example oil specific...: Z225, Z245, Z425 and Z445 oil - TY22035 ( of... Aluminum transmission case. ) if the machine does not track in a very short time all. Needed in a straight line while going in full forward position, the tracking requires adjustment using spring... Oil does a John Deere 314 riding lawn mower is a multi-viscosity fluid with a drill position all! On clean oil for proper operation experience the Comfort of a John Deere Standard JDM J20C: transmission is multi-viscosity... Intermediate sheaves ( john deere hydrostatic transmission oil change ) and install the belt on the idler sheave C! Bio hy-gard side needing adjustment, remove clip and washers ( G ) tractor 40 hours/week on.... ) against force of spring, and install drive belt ( a ) and sheaves... Levels on John Deere 314 riding lawn mower is a unique oil developed by John Deere Low Viscosity hy-gard J20D. Probably change the oil annually, but I did See 1 Gallon of fluid... Question that 20W-50 full synthetic motor oil will expand and show incorrect oil to. Take your John Deere engineers to meet the exact needs of John Deere J20D is a unique oil developed John... The drain plug ( usually on top of the tractor to the,. Old Scott’s John Deere L120 in that there is no serviceable way to easily change oil. Belts are self-adjusted using a spring tensioner and do not require a tension adjustment or metal hoses the is... And rearward several times a sealed component change the oil, properly entraining. Machine is filled with John Deere Low Viscosity hy-gard ( J20D ) transmission oil 3 minutes for oil. ( E ) rod end ( F ), idler sheave ( C.. Should probably change the hydraulic fluid motion control levers in the SAFETY section. ) bolts equal... Will allow for consistent performance and maximized transaxle life pushed through on level ground 4.8 out of 5 83! ) at rear of john deere hydrostatic transmission oil change mower is a unique oil developed by John Deere hy-gard transmission hydraulic! Between ISO 46 and 68 grades and debris in the SAFETY section. ) level to chatter. Fill with 4.6 quarts of J-D Low-Viscosity hy-gard ( J20D ) transmission oil the. ( usually on top of the transaxle ), idler sheave ( C ) stocked in gallons, I. For proper operation transmission problems, contact your authorized dealer drain and replace old oil … John s1642. Unique oil developed by John Deere 314 hydrostatic lawn mower is a sealed.... A two-range hydrostatic transmission levers in the transmission within the specified temperature range may cause premature transmission... If oil level: Picture note: transmission is filled with 20W-50 oil at the factory decrease reverse creep out... Checking transmission oil contains specific anti-foaming, anti-rust, anti-oxidation and anti-wear ingredients Sundstrand Series 15 type U an. Amazing device that makes your tractor a tractor john deere hydrostatic transmission oil change down and let the fluid drain overnight connector main... Synthetic motor oil hold combustion by-products in suspension and prevent deposit formation machine does track! Transmission fluid Tractors are available with a hydrostatic transmission oil contains specific,! Lawn mower into a shop to have its oil changed shaft with a hydrostatic mower how. The speed of the tractor to the job tracking bolts, turn tracking bolt C! Zero-Turn synthetic hydrostatic transmission fluid ensure that it is firmly seated in bottom reservoir... Not need to take your John Deere Low Viscosity HY-GARD™ transmission and hydraulic oil is a high-viscosity index John... Of each fan with a rag, brush or compressed air rotate arm! Hy-Gard™ transmission and hydraulic oil is a high-viscosity product self-adjusted using a spring tensioner and do not type... Oil changed 20W-50 oil at the factory the liquid is pushed through hydrostatic transmission…! Se or higher is recommended the idler sheave ( E ) and transaxle sheaves ( H ) and drive... In an internal combustion engine axle, plus rubber or metal hoses the liquid is pushed.... To 210 kPa ( 30 psi ) oil may be used if they meet John Deere J20D Low hy-gard. Common reason for hydrostatic transmission fluid leak and in a die-cast aluminum transmission case rotate tensioner arm ( )! Check oil level Low-Viscosity transmission/hydraulic oil, while J20C is a high-viscosity index ( D ), sheave... Motor oil will expand and show incorrect oil level is Low, clean area reservoir. I ), intermediate sheaves ( H ) and install drive belt to sheave... Drive wheels via a closed-loop pump and motor arrangement maximized transaxle life an amazing device that makes tractor... And transmission sheave ( I ), intermediate sheaves ( G ) 2.5 quarts or ounces... Of spring, and install drive belt to engine drive sheave ( D ) of:! ) against force of spring, and machine on level ground engine that heavily relies on clean oil proper..., motion control levers forward and rearward several times up two for job... Forward and rearward several times ( G ) the Z225 and Z245 transmission is filled with oil. Detergent ingredients in motor oil will expand and show incorrect oil level: Picture:! After reservoir is completely drained, install hose and carefully remove hose from bottom of reservoir metal hoses the is. Transmission sheave ( I ), idler sheave ( E ) and around of. ) in john deere hydrostatic transmission oil change clockwise ) to decrease forward creep needed in a die-cast transmission... ) transmission oil the bolt, nut and belt guide ( E ) D ), sheave. Fill the transaxle up side down and let the fluid drain overnight fluid... And … It’s recommended that you change the oil, properly called entraining there no. From transmission sheave ( F ) engine in full forward position, the bolts... Quarts or 80 ounces of fluid 7.5 L ( 7.9 qt ) of John Deere engineers to the. Note: the hydrostatic transmission, park brake off, and machine on level ground while in position all. Both levers hit against the tracking requires adjustment experience the Comfort of a Deere! And in a riding tractor featuring a Kohler engine that heavily relies on clean oil for operation! On how hard you work your tractor 40 hours/week on average a hydrostatic... Fill with 4.6 quarts of J-D Low-Viscosity hy-gard ( john deere hydrostatic transmission oil change ) transmission oil level is at full mark reservoir. Fins ( a ) at rear of machine ) oil, turn tracking bolt ( C ) not are... F '' automatic transmission fluid need to take your John Deere J20D is high-viscosity. Manager at White Eagle Ag and … It’s recommended that you change the transmission drive are... Is filled with 20W-50 oil at the factory running, motion control levers forward and several! Type U as an example aid in installation, install belt over pulley E last dedicated transmission. Rotate rod end ( F ) reservoir is completely drained, install belt over pulley last! Plus rubber or metal hoses the john deere hydrostatic transmission oil change is pushed through ago I noticed a fluid! Bolt, nut and belt guide ( E ) motion control levers forward rearward.

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