Countering Violent Extremism: In November, the Pakistani government announced that it would review and potentially revise NACTA’s composition and operations. Based on current law enforcement investigations, the United States is concerned that China does not adequately control terrorist financing. On January 31, 2017, Brazil issued two implementing regulations for Laws 13.170 and 13.260 to address gaps in its countering the financing of terrorism (CFT) regime, specifically allowing for domestic terrorism designations and facilitating international cooperation on terrorism investigations. Since FATF published its mutual evaluation report on South Africa in 2008, the country’s legal and institutional frameworks for terrorist financing issues have improved, including bank supervision capacity and criminalization of money laundering and terrorist financing activities. These activities expanded access to information, strengthened engagement, and increased dialogue to combat violent extremism. However, the lack of centralized databases continued to hinder Iraq’s ability to track the number of terrorism suspects it detained and arrested. Additional constraints include lack of training and widespread corruption. Sweden Previously, MSC claimed responsibility for the March 21, 2013, attack in which Gaza-based militants fired at least five rockets at Sderot, Israel; and the April 17, 2013, attack in which two rockets were fired at Eilat. In January, GAFILAT published its Mutual Evaluation Report of the Republic of Panama , which identified Panama as a jurisdiction with AML/CFT deficiencies and placed the country on a one-year enhanced review period. Visa applicants are subject to a robust interagency screening process that draws on biographic and biometric data. Italy remained a co-lead of the Defeat-ISIS Coalition’s Counter-ISIS Finance Group, along with the United States and Saudi Arabia. Common attack types in Nigeria included Armed Assaults (94 percent), Bombings/Explosions (3 percent), and Kidnappings (2 percent). The Malian armed forces under the Ministry of Defense (MOD) remained the primary entities responsible for securing Mali against terrorist threats. Seven local employees and one government representative were killed and seven more were injured. Access to defense counsel for terrorism suspects is limited. The organization’s terrorist activity or terrorism must threaten the security of U.S. nationals or the national security (national defense, foreign relations, or the economic interests) of the United States. On November 18, 2018, in Metele, Borno state, Boko Haram attacked a military base, killing 118 military officers. Since 2010, FATF has identified Yemen as a risk to the international financial system because of its strategic AML/CFT deficiencies. Strength: In 2013, the group was estimated to have about 5,000 fighters; membership is almost certainly much lower today. The Government of Bangladesh continued to articulate a “zero-tolerance” policy toward terrorism and the use of its territory as a terrorist safe haven. Border security remained a top priority. The amendment also provided police with the authority to impose restrictions on the processing of terrorists’ funerals. Terrorist financing is a criminal offense in Hong Kong, and financial institutions are required to search continuously for terrorist financing networks. In November, Uzbek authorities arrested Dzhasurbek Yuldashev on suspicion of planning a terrorist attack. Other groups — such as Jamaat-ul-Ahrar, Lashkar i Jhangvi, and the Baloch Liberation Army — were also active in Pakistan. FATF noted that UN-listed entities, including LeT and its affiliates, were not effectively prohibited from raising funds in Pakistan, or being denied financial services. RFA broadcasts to the more than 16 million religious and ethnic minorities, including Uighur Muslims, in and around the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of northwestern China. At the July 2018 Brussels Summit, NATO members agreed to a new biometric data policy which, consistent with applicable national and international law and subject to national requirements and restrictions, supports Allies’ ability to identify terrorist travelers, including FTFs, and support implementation of UNSCR 2396. The United States participated in the June 2018 UN General Assembly’s biennial review of the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and the inaugural High-Level Conference of Heads of Counter-Terrorism Agencies of Member States. Legislation, Law Enforcement, and Border Security: There were no significant changes to Senegal’s counterterrorism legal framework in 2018, but the Senegalese government did seek to formalize guidelines for the treatment of terrorism cases. The Assad regime has furnished training, weapons, and diplomatic and political support. Marriott Hotel in Jakarta; the September 2004 bombing outside the Australian Embassy in Jakarta; and the October 2005 suicide bombing in Bali, which left 26 dead. In spring 2016, the RIRA bombed the van of an Irish prison officer in east Belfast; the officer died from complications following the attack. Additionally, reintegration programs are critical to ensure that individuals are less likely to engage in recidivism once they are no longer incarcerated. International and Regional Cooperation: Djibouti is a member of the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS. VOA Urdu shed light on Pakistani electoral politics with original stories on abducted peace activists, violence targeting local candidates, and the influence of fake news. To support this report, GTTAC created a Global Terrorism Experts Group, an international advisory board that reviews content and ensures objectivity by capturing local context and nuance. Four other U.S. nationals were among the approximately 122 others injured in the attack. Overview: In May 2018, the Department of State recertified Eritrea as “not cooperating fully” with U.S. counterterrorism efforts pursuant to section 40A of the Arms Export Control Act. Over the past decade, the Assad regime’s permissive attitude towards AQ and other terrorist groups’ foreign terrorist fighter facilitation efforts during the Iraq conflict fed the growth of AQ, ISIS, and affiliated terrorist networks inside Syria. As a result of this reporting, families of RFA Uighur reporters have been targeted by the Chinese government and detained in camps. They are an active member of the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS, serving as a co-lead for the Counter-ISIS Finance Working Group and are also a member of the Communications and Stabilization Working Groups. Strengthen the capabilities of government and non-governmental actors to isolate, intervene with, and promote the rehabilitation and reintegration of individuals who are caught in the cycle of terrorist radicalization or who are returning from foreign conflict zones. Funding and External Aid: AQIM members engage in kidnapping-for-ransom and other criminal activities to finance their operations. Satellite imagery analysis, eyewitness accounts, and human rights groups document the use of razor wire, guard towers, and single points of egress consistent with imprisonment. Tanzania continued to make progress on strengthening its AML/CFT regimes, including by instituting new procedures to more tightly regulate the movement of foreign exchange. Before Maziotis’s recapture, RS conducted a bomb attack outside a Bank of Greece office in Athens in April 2014; the blast caused extensive damage to surrounding structures but no casualties. It was renamed in 1994 after factional infighting. During summer 2014, part of AAI issued a statement pledging allegiance to ISIS, although later reports suggest that a faction of AAI opposed joining ISIS. GCTF–Inspired Institutions. 2018 Terrorist Incidents: There were no reported terrorist incidents in Cyprus in 2018. Countering the Financing of Terrorism: Maldives is a member of the Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG), a FATF-style regional body. The Government of National Unity (GNU) struggled to assert control over this remote terrain, where the population is largely detached from national institutions.  Cram approved Cook & Welch's plan in January 1912 and filed construction plans that July, with work beginning that October. ATS-G will be integrated with PISCES, thereby enhancing the capabilities of both systems to target potential threats and counter terrorist travel through Kenya. In November, the FATF noted that Denmark made significant improvements in 10 out of 12 areas since its 2017 review. Additionally, displaced Iraqis whose extended family members are suspected of supporting ISIS remained vulnerable to revenge attacks or retribution killings, or were denied access to services or freedom of movement. The Royal Mohammedan League of Ulema (Rabita Mohammedia) counters radicalization by producing scholarly research, reviewing educational curricula, and conducting youth outreach on religious and social topics. International assistance, including U.S. government-provided training on airport security and land border management, increased in 2018. As in previous years, the Government of the UAE worked closely with the United States, through the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), to improve its border security posture. However, following their release, security forces immediately rearrested the acquitted suspects. Despite technical compliance, insufficient cooperation and lack of capacity still hamper terrorist finance investigations. The Mexican Congress did not approve a legislative fix in 2018. HQN carried out multiple terrorist attacks in 2018. By February 2016, AQAP controlled most of Yemen’s southeastern coast. Countering the Financing of Terrorism: China is a member of the FATF, the Asia/Pacific Group (APG) on Money Laundering, and the Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing (EAG). No injuries were reported. In December 2003, Pakistan implicated JeM members in two assassination attempts against then-President Pervez Musharraf. The military wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) – the New People’s Army (NPA) – is a Maoist group formed in March 1969 with the aim of overthrowing the government through protracted guerrilla warfare. Strength: AQIM has an estimated 1,000 fighters operating in the Sahel, including Algeria, northern Mali, southwest Libya, and Niger. Strength: The group has tens of thousands of supporters and members worldwide. Hamas Overview: Israel was a committed counterterrorism partner in 2018, closely coordinating with the United States on a range of counterterrorism initiatives. The United States routinely engages in military-to-military discussions on how it can help Egypt defeat ISIS-SP and other terrorist groups in Egypt. The operation is credited with dismantling a cell providing logistical support to aspiring ISIS affiliate JAK-T. On June 4, the Counterterrorism Investigative Brigade of the Aouina National Guard arrested five people ages 17 to 21 who, after interrogation, confessed their intention to join JAK-T. On November 13, the National Terrorist Crimes Investigation Unit (UNECT) conducted counterterrorism raids in Raoued and Tunis, dismantling 40 active terrorist cells. Ambassador Nathan A. In 2017, the group threatened to fight “American occupiers” in Iraq, in an article published on the group’s official website. The Colombian government, however, classifies FARC dissidents as criminals. International and Regional Cooperation: Canada prioritizes collaboration with international partners to counter terrorism and regularly seeks opportunities to lead.  The first services were held in January 1899 within the Tiffany Chapel. As defined by section 2656f(d) of Title 22 of the U.S. Code, the terms “terrorist sanctuary” and “sanctuary” exclude the territory of a country the government of which is subject to a determination under section 4605(j)(1)(A) of Title 50; section 2371(a) of Title 22; or section 2780(d) of Title 22. Through PREACT, the United States supports joint training exercises for Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ugandan first responders and law enforcement professionals as part of a broader effort to encourage regional coordination and cooperation, protect shared borders, and respond to terrorist incidents responsibly and effectively. India also led efforts to condemn terrorism and took tangible steps against the threat in the various meetings of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and ASEAN. Legislation, Law Enforcement, and Border Security: Jordan made no significant changes to its counterterrorism legal framework in 2018. In June, French security agencies arrested 10 terrorists in Corsica over an alleged plot to attack Muslims. Description: Al-Nusrah Front (ANF) is al-Qa’ida’s affiliate in Syria and was designated as a FTO on May 15, 2014. On November 4, Tajik officials reportedly arrested 12 suspects planning to set off a bomb at the Russian 201st motorized rifle division headquarters in Dushanbe, allegedly under instructions from ISIS. Canada’s FIU, the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada, is a member of the Egmont Group. In October, Philippine authorities detained a suspect allegedly involved in placing an IED near the U.S. Embassy in Manila in November 2016. In addition to military operations, the Egyptian government announced that it planned to adapt its counterterrorism strategy to address immediate humanitarian needs and long-term economic and social development goals, though this has long been part of the government’s talking points about its activities in the Sinai. With the International Organization for Migration, Chad used the Migration Information and Data Analysis System (MIDAS) to identify refugees and internally displaced persons. Tunisia continued to prioritize the safeguarding of tourist zones in 2018. In April 2004, Abu Abbas died of natural causes while in U.S. custody in Iraq. In 2018, the Government of Kosovo continued to implement its comprehensive CVE strategy and updated its action plan. Niger had adequate aviation security measures in place and hosted an ICAO meeting in July, although it did not take additional explicit steps to respond to UNSCR 2309 on aviation security. Although not a member, Tanzania also participated in GCTF regional workshops and events. The most significant of these was a pair of coordinated suicide bombings in Baghdad’s al-Tayaran Square on January 15 that killed 38 Iraqis and wounded 105 others. Information about victims is being collected at two different levels. On April 17, in the weeks before Indian Prime Minister Modi’s visit to Nepal, a bomb exploded at the Indian Consulate in Birgunj in southern Nepal, damaging the perimeter wall. Since 2011, when U.S. engagement with Mauritanian security forces greatly increased and Mauritanian forces defeated al-Qa’ida elements in three separate battles, Mauritania has not suffered a terrorist attack, despite continuing terrorist violence in neighboring Mali. 13224 and as an FTO. The Newswire has more than 1,200 subscribers, and its content is regularly published by 270 media outlets. Particularly alarming is the trend of terrorist leaders manipulating local ethnic conflicts and members of ethnic groups to support terrorist operations by assisting them with long-standing claims against other ethnic groups, for example, the ethnic fighting involving the Peuhl/Fulani ethnic group, or perennial farmer-herder violence over water and grazing areas. The Ministry of Endowments and Islamic Affairs has developed an educational curriculum for Morocco’s nearly 50,000 imams as well as for female students (mourchidates). Despite a scarcity of resources, the CTU also participated in several successful interdictions of known or suspected terrorists. Israel continued to face terrorist threats from Hamas and other terrorist organizations in Gaza. The cases demonstrate that Senegal takes seriously its small terrorism docket. International and Regional Cooperation: The ROYG continued to cooperate with and be advised by the Gulf Cooperation Council, the United States, and other donor countries as it concentrated on working toward a peaceful solution to the conflict. Since April, militants sent hundreds of incendiary devices into southern Israel by kite and balloon, resulting in more than 7,000 acres burned, including a forest preserve and numerous farmed fields, causing more than US $2 million in damages. TTP directed and facilitated Faisal Shahzad’s failed attempt to detonate an explosive device in New York City’s Times Square on May 1, 2010. Description: Jama’at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin (JNIM) was designated as a FTO on September 6, 2018. The UAE introduced in the law the obligations of Designated Non-Financial Business and Professions in addition to financial institutions, which are required to put in place adequate systems and controls to assess their risk exposure to financing of terrorism. For instance, in February, authorities in Trinidad and Tobago disrupted an ISIS-inspired plot to attack the country’s Carnival celebrations. Location/Area of Operation: The PFLP-GC’s political leadership is headquartered in Damascus, with bases in southern Lebanon and a presence in the Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon and Syria. Aka Ansar al-Sunna; Ansar al-Sunna Army; Devotees of Islam; Followers of Islam in Kurdistan; Helpers of Islam; Jaish Ansar al-Sunna; Jund al-Islam; Kurdish Taliban; Kurdistan Supporters of Islam; Partisans of Islam; Soldiers of God; Soldiers of Islam; Supporters of Islam in Kurdistan. It is at 1047 Amsterdam Avenue in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City, between West 110th Street (also known as Cathedral Parkway) and West 113th Street. The Kyrgyz Republic belongs to the Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism (EAG), a FATF-style regional body. In 2018, Jordan continued to cite a court ruling that its constitution forbids the extradition of Jordanian nationals. Victims of Terrorist Incidents Worldwide, 2018, This section contains a new set of variables for 2018 that did not exist in previous Annexes. Authorities continued to defend these arrests as a response to criminal acts that fell under the cover of “terrorism” or vaguely-defined crimes against national security. Nevertheless, the group was able to conduct a significant number of high-profile, mass-casualty attacks in both Afghanistan and Pakistan. Attacks in 2018 included the following: Legislation, Law Enforcement, and Border Security: There were no changes to counterterrorism legislation in 2018. Section 2656f(a) of Title 22 of the United States Code states as follows: (a) … The Secretary of State shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, by April 30 of each year, a full and complete report providing –, (1) (A) detailed assessments with respect to each foreign country –. In 2018, following ISIS’s demonstrated use of chemical agents in territory it controlled between 2014 and 2017, the United States continued to work with Iraq to deny ISIS access to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) materials and expertise strengthening the ability of Iraq’s government, academic institutions, and private sector to secure weaponizable chemical and biological materials and detect, disrupt, and respond effectively to suspected CBRN activity. Still, from September 2017 to June 2018, the Mexican government reported opening four investigations into terrorism financing and blocked 34 individuals from accessing the Mexican finance and banking system based on UN designations linking these individuals to terrorism financing. TTP uses the tribal belt along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border to train and deploy its operatives, and the group has ties to al-Qa’ida (AQ). Yemen. Incidents of domestic terrorism, which focused on voter intimidation or targeted government officials during the late-2017 provincial and federal election season, were less common in 2018. On August 2, in Al Hudaydah, unknown militants used explosives to kill 55 civilians and injure 24 others. Turkey’s Ministry of the Interior claimed that the PKK killed 27 civilians in Turkey in 2018. Other groups — such as the Maute Group, Ansar Al-Khilafa, and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front — were also active in the Philippines.  The western towers, planned to be 266 feet (81 m), reached only to the roof of the nave. Utilizing the World Bank’s money laundering/terrorist financing (ML/TF) risk assessment tool, the Central Bank of Cyprus and MOKAS engaged relevant stakeholders to produce the NRA, an extensive analysis and self-assessment of the risks and vulnerabilities posed by ML/TF in the Republic of Cyprus. It also would broaden the definition of “terrorist organization” to include individuals or entities that provide economic and logistical support to terrorist organizations, and broaden the definition of “terrorist” to include individuals who recruit, indoctrinate, or advocate terrorism. Funding and External Aid: Funding comes from wealthy donors in Pakistan, and the Middle East, particularly Saudi Arabia. The U.S. Embassy in Addis Ababa is working with the Government of Ethiopia to codify criminal investigative cooperation authorities between the U.S. government and Government of Ethiopia. In 2018, VOA’s Extremism Watch Desk expanded its coverage beyond South and Central Asia to other regions, including North Africa, the Sahel, and East and Southeast Asia. Participants reaffirmed their commitment to bolstering counterterrorism capabilities and working together to address gaps to counter terrorist threats more effectively. This report includes some discretionary information in an effort to relate terrorist events to the larger context in which they occur, and to give a feel for the conflicts that spawn violence. Eighty-one percent of incidents in Burkina Faso could not be attributed to a particular perpetrator group. Al-Shabaab claimed responsibility for one of the deadliest attacks against AMISOM troops in Somalia in January 2016. The group has claimed responsibility for several high profile bombings and shootings throughout Somalia targeting AMISOM troops and Somali officials. In addition, the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence equipped the Port of Beirut with radiation detection equipment to scan cargo for the presence of radiation. Senegal is working to improve its law enforcement capacity by participating in multilateral efforts, such as the GCTF’s Border Security Initiative, AU programs, and the Economic Community of West Africa (ECOWAS). Individual Current Time programs also were carried by 42 affiliates in 14 countries. On February 27, the Nouakchott Criminal Court sentenced 11 suspects to prison on terrorism-related charges for periods ranging from five to 10 years. ISIS-Bangladesh did not claim responsibility for any attacks in 2018. AOI also carried out the early 2009 attacks on Egyptian civilians in Cairo and Heliopolis, Egypt, and planned the January 1, 2011, attack on a Coptic Christian church in Alexandria that killed 25 and wounded 100. In the week that followed, content consumption surged by 211 percent and 394 percent in article and video views, respectively. In July 2018, al-Shabaab claimed responsibility for an attack on Somalia’s interior ministry compound, killing at least nine people. Press reported as many as 600 soldiers unaccounted for. The attackers used two one-ton SVBIEDs, rocket-propelled grenades, indirect fire, and at least four heavy machine guns during the assault, which killed two UN peacekeepers and critically injured 12 others. Other prominent targeted groups included Military-National (13 percent) and Government-Law Enforcement (6 percent). Argentina From February through May 2016, LeT was suspected of engaging in at least three firefights with Indian security forces in Kupwara district, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, injuring two Indian personnel. According to independent sources and non-governmental organizations engaged in demining activities on the ground, there was little cause for concern regarding the presence of WMD in Somalia. Malaysia hosted ASEAN’s Senior Officials’ Meeting on Transnational Crime, multiple UN workshops on preventing violent extremism, and an ARF workshop on countering online extreme messaging. 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